I was not able to find a way to synchronize your AD computer groups with WSUS. I was able to find a procedure to allow you to use Group Policy to assign your clients into WSUS groups.
The first thing you need to do is to determine how your clients will be grouped. For those using Group Policy already, this may be in place.
Either create new group policies for each category of computer, our use an existing GPO.
To enable client-side targeting
1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update.
2. In the details pane, click Enable client-side targeting.
3. Click Enabled and type the name of the computer group in the box.
4. Click OK.
On the WSUS server, you now need to create the computer groups that you intend to use.
1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Computers.
2. Under Tasks, click Create a computer group.
3. In the Group name box, type Test, and then click OK.
Now you must configure WSUS to allow the clients to populate themselves in the computer groups.
To specify the method for assigning computers to groups
1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Computer Options.
2. In Computer Options, do one of the following:
3. Click Use Group Policy or registry settings on computers.
4. Under Tasks, click Save settings, and then click OK.